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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2021 during the last three month.

Original Papers
Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle LiDAR-based High Spatial Resolution Topographic Dataset in Russell Glacier, Greenland
Yongsik Jeong, Sungjae Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Hyun-Cheol Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):1-7.   Published online March 29, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Greenland contains a large continental glacier. The influence of glacier melting has been expanding due to global warming. Although regional monitoring based on satellite data is being conducted, the demand for local/specific variation observation has increased as rising climate temperature patterns in the polar region. In this study, a precise topographic dataset was created for Greenland’s Russell glacier using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) onboarded LiDAR sensor. A precise digital surface model (DSM) was constructed based on LiDAR data obtained at an altitude of about 100 to 200 m, and DSM resampled to a 2 m sample distance was produced to confirm its applicability by comparing before-and-after variations. This study provides DSM data applied with a pre/post-processing used for the comparison analysis.
Sea Ice Elevation Measurements Using 3-D Laser Scanner
Minji Seo, Ji-Eun Park, Jeong-Won Park, Jinku Park, Hyun-Cheol Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):20-25.   Published online March 28, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study aims to introduce a sea ice elevation dataset estimated by using a 3-D laser scanner during the ice camp of the 2022 Arctic summer field survey. The equipment used is FARO’s Laser scanner FOCUS 3D X 130 HDR. The observed sea ice floe is located in the Arctic Ocean (76°13' N, 174°35') and is a multi-year ice with several melt ponds and ice ridges. We scanned eight sections separately, considering the equipment’s maximum horizontal scan range and the ice surface’s topographic features. The raw data were co-registered based on the positions of reference spheres. The result indicated a significant level of accuracy with a target-based vertical mean error of 4.8 mm. The laser scanner data were merged into point clouds ranging from 160×210 m. As a result, sea ice elevation data were generated in 0 to 2.8 m based on the minimum vertical point in the observation range. Sea ice elevation data is an essential variable in estimating the various properties of sea ice, such as ice thickness and roughness. In addition, using climatic variables such as air temperature and energy budget observed simultaneously can help to understand the physical interaction between the sea ice surface and the atmosphere on a local scale.
Topographic Dataset around Uljin Hujeong Coast Using Multi-beam Echo Sounder and Shipborne Mobile LiDAR
Won Hyuck Kim, Chang Hwan Kim, Jong Dae Do, Won Dae Baek, Jea Ho Choi, Soon Young Choi, Byung Gil Lee, Chan Hong Park, Feel Hoon Go
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):49-53.   Published online March 30, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We obtained a dataset through beach and submarine topography surveys around Hujeoung coast in Uljin. We conducted the beach and submarine topography surveys using small vessels from July 8 to July 11, 2016. The surveying instruments used for the surveys were Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System and Multi-beam Echo Sounder (Kongsberg EM3001). The beach topography was observed up to about 6 m from the shoreline. The width of the beach is about 30 m to 40 m. In the southeast of the survey area, there is an exposed rock with a depth of about 20 m. The area around the rock has sandy sediments. Datasets of the Hujeong coast area can be used for continuous monitoring to development of coastal erosion control system.
The Funga of Higher Fungi of Mt. Jeombong in Korea: A Survey of Mongolian Oak Forest in 2017
Seung Won Lee, Juo Choi, Ho-Yeon Won, Young Sang Lee, Dongsu Yu, Areum Han, Hwa-Yong Lee, Hee-Su Lee, Ju-Kyeong Eo
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):40-48.   Published online March 30, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This research was conducted to determine the biodiversity of higher fungi at the supersite of Mt. Jeombong from July to October 2017 during the second long-term ecology research by the National Institute of Ecology under the management of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Forty-three families, 74 genera, and 130 species of higher fungi were found within the permanent square area of Mt. Jeombong and a 10 m radius of the ecological flux tower. Russulaceae (54 species, 21.9%), Amanitaceae (17 species, 6.9%), and Boletaceae (17 species, 6.9%) were the top three species taxa found in mycorrhizal mushrooms. Mycenaceae (nine species, 8.5%), Polyporaceae (11 species, 4.5%), and Strophariaceae (11 species, 4.5%) were the top three species taxa found in saprophytic mushrooms. These results were analyzed and compared with those of previous fungal mushroom studies.
Establishment of Geographic Information Data of Greenland Glacier Using Fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Sungjae Lee, Seung Hee Kim, Hyun-Cheol Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):34-39.   Published online March 28, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In recent decades, the Greenland glacier has experienced significant changes in the environment near the surface due to the increase in surface melting on glacier. In order to quantify these environmental changes, precise spatial information data is necessary. Although digital elevation models using satellite data are widely used to secure data, it is difficult to observe the polar regions by satellite alone due to limitations such as spatial resolution, revisit period, and weather. To overcome these shortcomings, many field geographic surveys using unmanned aerial vehicles are being conducted. In this study, a field survey was conducted on September 14, 2021 to produce high-resolution spatial information in the Russell glacier area located in the Greenland Kangerlussuaq. By matching the acquired aerial image data, orthorectification image with a spatial resolution of about 13 cm/pixel and a digital surface model are produced. This data is expected to be utilized as basic spatial data for Russell glacier runoff and topographical changes, and it is expected to be used as data that can grasp changes in time and spatial through continuous data accumulation.
Imputation of Ocean-color Product in Polynya Region of Antarctica for Primary Productivity Estimates
Jinku Park, Sungjae Lee, Jeong-Hoon Kim, Hyun-Cheol Kim
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):8-14.   Published online March 28, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study, focusing on the Antarctic polynyas, performed the imputation of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) dataset, which is one of the ocean color products mainly used for estimating primary productivity, using the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function method and constructed accurate time-series data that excludes as much uncertainty as possible in long-term variability studies due to missing data. The polynya regions were classified into a total of 23 zones through quantitative criterions, and the statistical accuracy of imputation performance was 0.89 for R2 and 0.42, 0.24, and 0.15 for root mean square error, mean squared error, mean absolute error, respectively, on average, showing the ability to perform generally accurate reconstruction. Finally, the reconstructed Chl-a data showed a relatively stable fluctuation compared with standard satellite Chl-a data, and tended to be underestimated due to the expansion of the observable regions. We expect that securing these relatively stable and accurate estimates will be significantly different from the time-series data composed of standard Chl-a estimates, enabling more accurate variability and trend analysis.
Sea Ice Drift from GPS Tracker Deployed in the Arctic Ocean
Jeong-Won Park, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Jinku Park, Ji-Eun Park, Minji Seo
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):15-19.   Published online March 28, 2023
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  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Sea ice is monitored on a regular basis by satellite observation; however, image-based drift tracking is imprecise as the time interval forming the image-pair is too large to capture the actual trajectory of ice drift. In this study, drift trajectory and speed of an Arctic sea ice floe measured by a GPS tracker for 3 months and the characteristics of the relating device and data, are introduced.
Meteorological and Sea Surface Water Measurement Data from Icebreaker Research Vessel ARAON for 2020-2021 Arctic Research Expeditions
Sungjae Lee, Hyun-Cheol Kim, Dongseob Shin, Suhwan Kim, HyunGyu Choi
GEO DATA. 2023;5(1):26-33.   Published online March 28, 2023
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Since its construction in 2010, the icebreaker ARAON has been conducting regular polar field surveys to observe changes in the atmosphere and marine environment in polar regions. The Arctic Ocean, a major research area, is directly affected by changes in the ocean, atmosphere and energy circulation system due to the continuous decrease in sea ice. During the Arctic summer season, when sea ice becomes smaller and thinner, the ARAON passes through East Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, and Beaufort Sea to investigate the marine environment on the high latitude high seas. The Arctic Ocean is important not only for scientific research due to climate change, but also for economic research such as undersea energy, mineral resources, and Northern Sea route. However, it is difficult to access the Arctic and conduct long-term and continuous field surveys. ARAON carries out Arctic research voyages using various research equipment, and the most basic observation among them is meteorological information and sea water observation data. Weather data include solar radiation, atmospheric temperature, humidity, wind speed and wind direction, and seawater observations include sea water temperature, salinity, conductivity and fluorescence substances. In addition, three-dimensional location information of the research line was obtained. The data will be used as inspection data for satellite data and polar field survey data.
Kompsat-5 Image Data Provision and Quality Management
Dochul Ynag, Horyung Jeong, Doochun Seo
GEO DATA. 2022;4(4):13-19.   Published online December 31, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The Korea Aerospace Research Institute is conducting continuous quality management to provide reliable Kompsat-5 SAR image products to users. In this paper, the Kompsat-5 satellite operation, data processing, quality management, and data provision were described. The operation and image mode characteristics of the Kompsat-5 satellite from the image point of view were described, and the classification and characteristics of image products provided to users were explained. In addition, image data acquisition, quality index measurement, and its results are described for quality management of SAR images. Finally, it explains how to search for and order Kompsat image product through the ARIRANG system to quickly provide users with image products whose quality has been confirmed through quality management. Kompsat product can be searched and ordered from the ARIRANG Satellite Search and Order System (
Detailed bathymetry and seafloor image datasets, using multi-beam echo sounder and side scan sonar, around Seonam, Ilsan beach, Ulsan
Soon Young Choi, Chang Hwan Kim, Won Hyuck Kim, Hyun-Ok Choi, Chan Hong Park, Feel Hoon Go
GEO DATA. 2022;4(4):1-12.   Published online December 31, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We obtained detailed bathymetry and seafloor image datasets using multi-beam echo sounder and side scan sonar around Seonam at Ilsan beach in Ulsan. The survey was conducted from May 9 to May 12, 2018, using a small vessel. The equipment used for the survey was R2Sonic's Sonic 2020 (Multi-beam Echo Sounder) and EdgeTech’s 4125 (Side Scan Sonar). The detailed bathymetry of the study area shows slightly different topographical features for each part around Seonam. The eastern and southern parts have steep slopes and the depth of the water in the areas deepens away from the surroundings of the submerged bedrock area adjacent to Seonam. The water depth in the western and northern part is shallower with a relatively gentle slope, compared to the eastern and southern parts. The rocky bottom zones are mainly distributed in the eastern part area with the water depth range of 3 to 9 m around the Seonam. Some rocky areas also appear in the western region. Seafloor backscatter image shows irregular, complex reflection patterns of acoustic intensity mainly in the eastern and western adjacent areas around Seonam, and in the northern and southern coastal waters, which are almost identical to the underwater rock zones with shallow water depth. The detailed bathymetry and seafloor image datasets around Seonam, using the multi-beam echo sounder and the side scan sonar, can be used as an essential data for environment habitat mapping.
A Geological Environment Characteristics Dataset of Tidal Flat Surface Sediments: A 2021 Pilot Study of the Gomso Bay Tidal Flat Area to Use of Sediment Type Data
Kyoungkyu Park, Han Jun Woo, Hoi-Soo Jung, Joo Bong Jeong, Joo-Hyung Ryu, Jun-Ho Lee
GEO DATA. 2022;4(2):9-22.   Published online June 30, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The Gomso Bay tidal flat is located between Buan-gun and Gochang-gun in Jeollabuk-do, Korea; it is a semi-closed bay in an area where tides prevail over waves. Tidal flats are mainly found south of Gochang-gun, and the main stream located north of the tidal flats is about 15 m deep and 900 m wide at low tide. Limited direct sampling is necessary for analyzing the geological environment of intertidal tidal flats, depending on the expected ebb-tide time and the number of survey items allowed for tidal flat access. This study assessed field measurement and laboratory analysis items for obtaining and establishing geological environment data to use of sediment type data in a pilot research area in the Gomso Bay tidal flat. Thirty sites were examined on June 22 and 24, 2021 (survey time about 3.5 hours for the 2 days). The field measurements were the sample date (year/month/day/hour/minute), ellipsoid height using a real-time kinematics global positioning system (RTK GPS) (m), shear strength (kg/cm2), and Munsell color. Samples for particle size (phi, Φ), specific density, porosity (%), moisture content (%), total organic carbon (%), total carbon (%) and total nitrogen (%) were placed in zipper bags and polypropylene (PP) bottles. The sedimentary phases were classified following Folk and Ward (1957), the organic matter was characterized based on particle size analysis and each experimental result was verified. In the future, a geological environment characteristics dataset based on this pilot study will be used as basic data to assess changes in the tidal flat topography and sedimentation environment. It should be useful data for research, tidal flat environment conservation management and free open data for users of related researchers.
Construction of Topographic/Hydrologic Data using DEM and its Service 2
Saro Lee, Minju Kim
GEO DATA. 2021;3(4):1-10.   Published online December 31, 2021
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In addition to a total of 20 types of topography/moisture analysis maps that have already been built using a digital topographic model (DEM), in this study, a total of 32 types including 26 types of topographic analysis diagrams and 6 types of hydrological analysis diagrams were performed through various topography/hydraulic analysis. Additional species were built. As with the existing established data, the construction range is the whole of South Korea, the resolution is 30 m, and the coordinate system is UTM-K coordinates. The constructed data format is provided in three formats: ASCII, ARCGIS GRID, and GEOTIFF. All these topographic / hydrological analysis data can be downloaded free of charge from the Environmental Big Data Platform (
Distribution characteristics of invasive alien amphibians and reptiles in Korean
HeeNam Yoon, YongKi Kim, ManSeok Shin
GEO DATA. 2022;4(4):20-27.   Published online December 31, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study analyzed the distribution and habitat status of 1 species of amphibian and 4 species in 1 genus of reptiles among “ecosystem-disturbing species” designated by the Ministry of Environment through the National Habitat Survey of Alien Species (2015-2021). As a result, Rana catesbeiana with 415 sites, Trachemys spp. with 513 sites, Pseudemys concinna with 174 sites, Pseudemys nelsoni with 66 sites, and Mauremys sinensis with 31 sites. Of the total habitat area of R. catesbeiana, the agricultural land area accounted for 46% and the used(urbanized/dry) area accounted for 15%. Of the total habitat area of T. spp, the ratio of agricultural land areas was 35%, and the ratio of used areas was 24%. These species were found to live mainly in reservoir areas with higher natural characteristics than in urbanized and dry areas. However, M. sinensis, which were introduced in early 2000 and have a small number of habitats, mainly inhabited agricultural land areas with high naturalness, with agricultural land areas accounting for 43% and used areas accounting for 29% of the total habitat area. Accordingly, a detailed study on the ecology and artificial release of the M. sinensis is needed.
Data used for GIS-based Flood Susceptibility Mapping
Saro Lee, Fatemeh Rezaie
GEO DATA. 2022;4(1):1-15.   Published online March 31, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The dramatic increase in flood incidents as a significant threat to human life and property, environment, and infrastructure indicates the necessity of mapping spatial distribution of flood susceptible areas to reduce destructive effects of flooding. During the last decade, the integration of the geographic information system (GIS) with the remote sensing data provide efficient means to generate a more reliable and precise flood susceptibility map. The present study contains a review of 200 articles on the application of GIS-based methods in indicating flood vulnerable areas. The papers were reviewed in terms of influential variables, study area, and the number of articles published in the last 10 years. The review shows that the number of studies has increased since 2012. The total study areas covered 39 countries that were mostly located in Asia where the major developments and infrastructures have been constructed in the floodplains. The most common study areas was Iran (44 articles, 22%), followed by India (26 articles, 13%), China (26 articles, 11%), and Vietnam (15 articles, 7.5%). More than 90 variables were considered to map flood susceptible areas that the top 5 widely used flood conditioning factor are slope (98% of total articles), followed by elevation (92% of total articles), land use/land cover (79.5% of total articles), distance to the river (76.5% of total articles), and rainfall (73% of total articles). The review implies that many natural and anthropogenic factors affect flooding and the combination of both groups of factors is necessary to accurately detect and map flood-prone parts of the study area.
KOMPSAT Optical Image Data Provision and Quality Management
Daesoon Park, Doocheon Seo, Heeseob Kim
GEO DATA. 2022;4(4):28-38.   Published online December 31, 2022
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is conducting continuous quality control to provide reliable optical image products to various users. This paper describes KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellites (KOMPSAT-3 and KOMPSAT-3A) characteristics, operation, and image collection mode in order to enhance satellite image application. Also, image product of the satellites and quality management of the image product are described in this paper. The KOMPSAT-3 launched in 2012 and KOMPSAT-3A launched in 2015 collected many imageries around the world and provide them to users through web. Users can search for images through web catalog and order new imaging task. The KOMPSAT images provided under the KARI control is expected to be great help for earth observation and satellite image application enhancement.