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Original Paper
The Funga of Higher Fungi of Mt. Jeombong in Korea: A Survey of Mongolian Oak Forest in 2017
Seung Won Lee1,2orcid, Juo Choi1orcid, Ho-Yeon Won3orcid, Young Sang Lee4orcid, Dongsu Yu5orcid, Areum Han4orcid, Hwa-Yong Lee6orcid, Hee-Su Lee7orcid, Ju-Kyeong Eo8,*orcid
GEO DATA 2023;5(1):40-48.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.22761/GD.2023.0001
Published online: March 30, 2023
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1Researcher, Ecological Technology Research Team, Division of Ecological Applications Research, National Institute of Ecology, 1210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun, 33657 Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea

2Master Student, Department of Biological Sciences, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, 61186 Gwangju, South Korea

3Associate Researcher, Ecological Observation Team on Climate Change, Division of Climate and Ecology, National Institute of Ecology, 1210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun, 33657 Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea

4Researcher, Ecological Observation Team on Climate Change, Division of Climate and Ecology, National Institute of Ecology, 1210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun, 33657 Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea

5Researcher, National Agrobiodiversity Center, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, 166 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Iseo-myeon, Wanju-gun, 55365 Jeollabuk-do, South Korea

6Professor, Department of Forest Science, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, 28644 Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea

7Researcher, Department of Forest Science, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju-si, 28644 Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea

8Associate Researcher, Ecological Technology Research Team, Division of Ecological Applications Research, National Institute of Ecology, 11210 Geumgang-ro, Maseo-myeon, Seocheon-gun, 33657 Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea

Corresponding Author Ju-Kyeong Eo Tel: +82-41-950-5634 E-mail: abiesendo@gmail.com
• Received: February 16, 2023   • Revised: March 27, 2023   • Accepted: March 28, 2023

Copyright © 2023 GeoAI Data Society

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • This research was conducted to determine the biodiversity of higher fungi at the supersite of Mt. Jeombong from July to October 2017 during the second long-term ecology research by the National Institute of Ecology under the management of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Forty-three families, 74 genera, and 130 species of higher fungi were found within the permanent square area of Mt. Jeombong and a 10 m radius of the ecological flux tower. Russulaceae (54 species, 21.9%), Amanitaceae (17 species, 6.9%), and Boletaceae (17 species, 6.9%) were the top three species taxa found in mycorrhizal mushrooms. Mycenaceae (nine species, 8.5%), Polyporaceae (11 species, 4.5%), and Strophariaceae (11 species, 4.5%) were the top three species taxa found in saprophytic mushrooms. These results were analyzed and compared with those of previous fungal mushroom studies.
The Ministry of Environment of Korea began a national long-term ecological research project in 2004 to protect the changing and declining ecosystem. The national long-term ecological research project monitored changes in ecosystems, including long-term changes, and the maintenance, preservation, and purification of the ecosystem via interactions among organisms. The project was divided into a first phase (2004-2013) and a second phase (2014-2023). The first phase focused on office establishment, data accumulation, infrastructure, and international network establishment. The second phase focused on finding solutions via the analysis of the current state and prediction using accumulated data collected from the primary research project (Joo et al., 2013). As part of the second long-term ecological research, the biodiversity of higher fungi distribution in the Mongolian oak forest area of Mt. Jeombong was investigated (National Institute of Ecology, 2017).
2.1 Project description
Title is Research on soil microbial biodiversity and its interrelationship with the environment. During the second-phase long-term national ecological research, the interrelationship between soil microbial biodiversity and the environment at the Mt. Jeombong Main Research Center was investigated in 2017. The community ecology of soil microorganisms was investigated to identify the role of microorganisms in the forest ecosystem and elucidate the interactions among microorganisms. A biodiversity survey of higher fungi that form visible fruiting bodies was conducted, and survey data on the distribution status of the higher fungi in the Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. Ex Ledeb.) forest of Mt. Jeombong were collected.
2.2 Methods
This survey was conducted within a 10 m-radius of the ecological tower and the permanent square area (100×100 m [1 ha]) of Mt. Jeombong. The host plants and the surrounding environment were inspected, and the color and shape of the fruiting bodies were observed. The higher fungi were identified according to macroscopic traits, such as the shape, color of caps and structure of stems, and microscopic traits, such as the shape of spores. For the identification of higher fungi, Korean mushrooms (Park and Lee, 2010) and Japanese mushrooms (Imazeki, 2011) were referenced. Data were obtained according to the data standards and quality control procedures of EcoBank, a comprehensive ecological information system of the National Institute of Ecology.
2.3 Temporal coverage
The data used in this study were the biodiversity survey results of higher fungi obtained from the study of soil microbial biodiversity and its interaction with the environment during the second national long-term ecology study (2017) from July to October 2017.
2.4 Spatial coverage
The research area Mt. Jeombong is 1,424 m above sea level, and it is located on the border between Inje-gun and Yangyang-gun, Gangwon-do. Mt. Jeombong is geographically a transition zone between the northern and southern regions and topographically (Jeong et al., 2016); it is a mountainous area where various flora can be observed owing to its wide steep slope and high flat surface (Kim et al., 2017). The higher fungi were investigated within a permanent square area (100×100 m [1 ha]) of the western slope of the ecological tower of the Key Ecological Research Center and within a 10 m radius of the ecological tower (Fig. 1).
In 2017, 43 families, 74 genera, and 130 species were identified during the investigation of the higher fungi of Mt. Jeombong (National Institute of Biological Resources, 2019) (Table 1). The investigated higher fungi were divided into mycorrhizal and saprobic and organized according to the number of genera. Accordingly, 15 families, 22 genera, and 65 species of mycorrhizal mushrooms were found. Among them, four genera and eight species in Boletaceae accounted for the highest proportion. In addition, three genera and four species belonged to Tricholomataceae; two genera and 22 species belonged to Russulaceae; two genera and three species belonged to Thelephoraceae; one genus and eight species belonged to Amanitaceae; one genus and seven species belonged to Cortinariaceae; one genus and three species belonged to Entolomatacea; one genus and two species belonged to each of Hydnangiaceae and Suillaceae; and one genus and one species belonged to each of Bankeraceae, Cantharellaceae, Gomphaceae, Gyroporaceae, and Hydnaceae.
Saprobic mushrooms belonging to 28 families, 52 genera, and 65 species were found. Among them, five genera and eight species in Strophariaceae accounted for the highest proportion. In addition, five genera and five species belonged to Agaricaceae, four genera and nine species belonged to Mycenaceae, four genera and five species belonged to Polyporaceae, three genera and four species belonged to Physalacriaceae, three genera and three species belonged to Hymenochaetaceae, two genera and four species belonged to Marasmiaceae. Two genera and two species belonged to Dacrymycetaceae, Fomitopsidaceae, Lyophyllaceae, Omphalotaceae, and Stereaceae; one genus and two species belonged to each of Diatrypaceae; and one genus and two species belonged to each of Auriculariaceae, Auriscalpiaceae, Ceratiomyxaceae, Clavariaceae, Crepidotaceae, Dermateaceae, Helotiaceae, Ophiocordycipitaceae, Physaraceae, Pleurotaceae, Pluteaceae, Pyronemataceae, Schizoporaceae, Sclerotiniaceae, and Tubiferaceae (Fig. 2).
The higher fungi in the study area were compared by year at the family level (Fig. 3). Fifty-four families were identified, of which 11 (20.4%) were distributed only in 2016 and 23 (42.6%) only in 2017, while the remaining 20 (37.0%) were distributed in both years (Eo et al., 2021).

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Funding Information

This study was financially supported by the National Institute of Ecology under project Nos. NIE-B-2017-02 and NIE-B-2022-18 and the Ministry of Environment of Korea as basic ecological research.

Fig. 1.
Map of the research site at Mt. Jeombong in Gangwon-do (shown as a red circle in the inset). Biodiversity of higher fungi obtained within (A) the permanent 1 ha quadrat (100×100 m) indicated by black lines and (B) within a 10 m radius (red dotted circle) of the ecological flux tower.
GD-2023-0001f1.jpg
Fig. 2.
Taxonomical structure of families of higher fungi of Mt. Jeombong, Korea in 2017. Russulaceae (54 species, 21.9%), Amanitaceae (17 species, 6.9%), and Boletaceae (17 species, 6.9%) are the top 3 taxa by species found in mycorrhizal mushrooms. Mycenaceae (nine species, 8.5%), Polyporaceae (11 species, 4.5%), and Strophariaceae (11 species, 4.5%) are also the top 3 taxa by species found in saprophytic mushrooms.
GD-2023-0001f2.jpg
Fig. 3.
Higher fungi at the family level collected from Mt. Jeombong in 2016 and 2017. Fifty-four taxa were identified: 11 in 2016, 23 in 2017, and 20 in both 2016 and 2017. Compared with 2016, there were an increase of 12 new taxa (38.7%) in 2017. Environmental data that can be linked to this result will be useful for the interpretation of the fluctuation in mushroom species.
GD-2023-0001f3.jpg
Table 1.
List of higher fungal species collected from the Mongolian oak forest of Mt. Jeombong
Family name Genus name Scientific name Korean namec
Agaricaceae Agaricus Agaricus abruptibulbus 등색주름버섯a
Cyathus Nidula niveotomentosa 새둥지버섯a
Lycoperdon Lycoperdon pyriforme 좀말불버섯a
Macrolepiota Cyathus stercoreus 좀주름찻잔버섯a
Nidula Macrolepiota procera 큰우산버섯b
Albatrellaceae Albatrellus Albatrellus sp. 방패버섯속a
Amanitaceae Amanita Amanita fulva 고동색광대버섯a,b
Amanita melleiceps 파리버섯a
Amanita pantherina 마귀광대버섯a,b
Amanita porphyria 암회색광대버섯a,b
Amanita rubrovolvata 붉은주머니광대버섯a
Amanita spissacea 뱀껍질광대버섯a
Amanita vaginata 우산광대버섯a,b
Amanita virosa 독우산광대버섯a
Auriculariaceae Exidia Exidia thuretiana 뭉게좀목이a
Auriscalpiaceae Artomyces Clavicorona pyxidata 좀나무싸리버섯a
Bankeraceae Hydnellum Hydnellum concrescens 고리갈색깔때기버섯a
Boletaceae Boletus Boletus pseudocalopus 산속그물버섯아재비a
Leccinum Leccinum extremiorientale 접시껄껄이그물버섯a,b
Pulveroboletus Pulveroboletus ravenelii 갓그물버섯a,b
Tylopilus Tylopilus eximius 은빛쓴맛그물버섯a,b
Tylopilus felleus 쓴맛그물버섯a
Tylopilus neofelleus 제주쓴맛그물버섯a
Tylopilus vinosobrunneus 포도쓴맛그물버섯a,b
Tylopilus virens 녹색쓴맛그물버섯a,b
Cantharellaceae Cantharellus Cantharellus cibarius 꾀꼬리버섯a
Ceratiomyxaceae Ceratiomyxa Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa 알산호점균a
Clavariaceae Ramariopsis Ramariopsis kunzei 쇠뜨기버섯a
Cortinariaceae Cortinarius Cortinarius alboviolaceus 흰보라끈적버섯a
Cortinarius purpurascens 풍선끈적버섯a,b
Cortinarius rubicundulus 크림끈적버섯a
Cortinarius tenuipes 노랑끈적버섯a
Cortinarius traganus 연자색끈적버섯a,b
Cortinarius variicolor 다색끈적버섯a
Cortinarius violaceus 끈적버섯a,b
Crepidotaceae Crepidotus Crepidotus herbarum 풀귀버섯a,b
Dacrymycetaceae Calocera Calocera cornea 황소아교뿔버섯a
Dacrymyces Dacrymyces chrysospermus 손바닥붉은목이a,b
Dermateaceae Mollisia mollisia ventosa 연한살갗버섯a
Diatrypaceae Diatrype Diatrype disciformis 요버섯a
Diatrype stigma 넓은요버섯a
Entolomataceae Entoloma Entoloma album 흰꼭지외대버섯a
Entoloma chalybaeum 흑청색외대버섯a
Entoloma rhodopolium 삿갓외대버섯a
Fomitopsidaceae Antrodia Antrodia malicola 사과주름구멍버섯a
Climacocystis Climacocystis borealis 시루버섯a
Gomphaceae Ramaria Ramaria formosa 붉은싸리버섯a
Gyroporaceae Gyroporus Gyroporus longicystidiatus 큰둘레그물버섯a
Helotiaceae Bisporella Bisporella citrina 황색고무버섯a
Hydnaceae Hydnum Hydnum repandum 턱수염버섯a,b
Hydnangiaceae Laccaria Laccaria amethystea 자주졸각버섯a
Laccaria laccata 졸각버섯a
Hymenochaetaceae Hymenochaete Hymenochaete tabacina 소나무비늘버섯a
Inonotus Inonotus hispidus 시루뻔버섯b
Phellinus Phellinus tremulae 버들진흙버섯a
Lyophyllaceae Asterophora Asterophora lycoperdoides 덧부치버섯a,b
Hypsizygus Hypsizygus marmoreus 느티만가닥버섯a
Marasmiaceae Marasmius Marasmius maximus 큰낙엽버섯a
Marasmius nigripes 검은대낙엽버섯a
Marasmius rotula 낙엽버섯a
Rhodocollybia Rhodocollybia butyracea 버터철쭉버섯b
Mycenaceae Mycena Mycena alcalina 악취애주름버섯a
Mycena alphitophora 흰애주름버섯a,b
Mycena filopes 가마애주름버섯a,b
Mycena haematopus 적갈색애주름버섯b
Mycena macrocystidiata 소녀애주름버섯a
Mycena polygramma 세로줄애주름버섯b
Panellus Panellus stipticus 부채버섯a,b
Roridomyces Mycena rorida 젤리애주름버섯a
Xeromphalina Xeromphalina campanella 이끼살이버섯a
Omphalotaceae Gymnopus Gymnopus confluens 밀꽃애기버섯a
Lentinula Lentinula edodes 표고a
Ophiocordycipitaceae Ophiocordyceps Cordyceps nutans 노린재동충하초a
Physalacriaceae Armillaria Armillaria solidipes 다발뽕나무버섯a,b
Armillaria mellea 뽕나무버섯a
Cylindrobasidium Cylindrobasidium evolvens 담자고약버섯a
Oudemansiella Oudemansiella mucida 끈적끈끈이버섯a
Physaraceae Physarum Physarum polycephalum 황색망사먼지a
Pleurotaceae Pleurotus Pleurotus pulmonarius 산느타리a
Pluteaceae Pluteus Pluteus cervinus 난버섯a
Polyporaceae Datronia Datronia mollis 미로구멍버섯a,b
Microporus Microporus vernicipes 메꽃버섯부치a
Polyporus Polyporus brumalis 겨울구멍장이버섯a
Trametes Trametes pubescens 흰융털구름버섯a,b
Trametes versicolor 구름송편버섯a,b
Pyronemataceae Sowerbyella Sowerbyella imperialis 황금대접시버섯a
Russulaceae Lactarius Sowerbyella imperialis 황금대접시버섯a
Lactarius aspideus 보라변색젖버섯a
Lactarius chrysorrheus 노란젖버섯a,b
Lactarius piperatus 젖버섯a,b
Lactarius subplinthogalus 얇은갓젖버섯a
Lactarius subzonarius 당귀젖버섯a,b
Lactarius sumstinei 우산주름젖버섯a
Lactarius volemus 배젖버섯a
Russula Russula alboareolata 목련무당버섯a
Russula amoena 가지무당버섯a
Russula azurea 하늘색무당버섯a,b
Russula compacta 담갈색무당버섯a
Russula cyanoxantha 청머루무당버섯b
Russula emetic var. clusii 냄새무당버섯a
Russula emetica 무당버섯a,b
Russula exalbicans 색바랜무당버섯a,b
Russula foetens 깔때기무당버섯a,b
Russula nigricans 절구무당버섯a,b
Russula sanguinea 혈색무당버섯a,b
Russula senecis 흙무당버섯a,b
Russula vesca 조각무당버섯a
Russula violeipes 자줏빛무당버섯a
Russula xerampelina 포도무당버섯a,b
Schizoporaceae Hyphodontia Hyphodontia sambuci 석회돌기고약버섯a
Sclerotiniaceae Lanzia Lanziza echinophile 털밤껍질버섯a
Stereaceae Stereum Stereum ostrea 갈색꽃구름버섯a
Xylobolus Xylobolus frustulatus 거북꽃구름버섯a,b
Strophariaceae Gymnopilus Gymnopilus liquiritiae 미치광이버섯a
Gymnopilus penetrans 침투미치광이버섯a
Gymnopilus spectabilis 갈황색미치광이버섯a
Hypholoma Hypholoma fasciculare 노란개암버섯a
Hypholoma lateritium 개암버섯a
Kuehneromyces Kuehneromyces mutabilis 무리우산버섯a
Pholiota Pholiota adiposa 검은비늘버섯a
Stropharia Stropharia rugosoannulata 턱받이포도버섯a
Suillaceae Suillus Suillus bovinus 황소비단그물버섯a
Suillus viscidus 녹슬은비단그물버섯a,b
Thelephoraceae Polyozellus Polyozellus multiplex 까치버섯a
Thelephora Thelephora multipartita 많은가지사마귀버섯a
Thelephora palmata 단풍사마귀버섯a,b
Tricholomataceae Clitocybe Clitocybe fragrans 흰삿갓깔때기버섯b
Clitocybe infundibuliformis 깔때기버섯a
Collybia Collybia cirrhata 흰무리애기버섯a
Resupinatus Resupinatus applicatus 꽃무늬애버섯a
Tubiferaceae Lycogala Lycogala epidendrum 분홍콩점균a

a Permanent quadrat.

b Ecological flux tower.

c Korean names of the mushrooms were obtained from “National Species List of Korea,” “Wild Fungi of Korea.”

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Metadata for Dataset
Sort Field Subcategory#1 Subcategory#2
Essential *Title The funga of higher fungi of Mt. Jeombong (2017) Dataset1
*DOI name 10.22756/GEO.20230000000821
*Category Biota Macrofungi
Abstract
*Temporal Coverage July to October 2017 Acquisition period
*Spatial Coverage Address Mt. Jeombong
• Permanent quadrat Point
- Upper left: N 38°02′18.90″ E 128° 28′00.96″ World Geodetic System (WGS84)
- Upper right: N 38° 02′18.65″ E 128° 28′04.46″
- Lower right: N 38° 02′15.65″ E 128° 28′04.99″
- Lower left: N 38° 02′16.25″ E 128° 28′00.89″
• Ecological flux tower
- Center: N 38° 02′16.87″ E 128° 28′05.94″
*Personnel Name Ju-Kyeogn Eo
Affiliation National Institute of Ecology
E-mail abiesendo@gmail.com
*CC License Open data Open data
Optional *Project Soil microbial biodiversity and its environment LTER (2017)
*Instrument Collection bag 26×15×19 cm

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