1. Introduction

The Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea conducted the First Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project from 2004 to 2013 to monitor ecosystem change, maintenance, and conservation. Beginning in 2014, the second LTER project was launched by the National Institute of Ecology. The purpose of the LTER project was to lay the foundation for monitoring of biodiversity and researching the interactions between organisms from a supersite on Mt. Jeombong in Gangwon-do. For this, a roadmap of the 2nd LTER project established in 2014, and the supersite was established in the experimental forest of Mt. Jeombong in 2015. In 2016, research on the interactions between organisms was conducted at the supersite. All synthetic studies conducted at this supersite divided into one of eight topics:

(1) population dynamics and wetland, (2) plant community and nutrient cycling, (3) insect–plant correlation, (4) soil microbial biodiversity and its environment, (5) forest bird community and feeding guild structure, (6) forest bat community, (7) forest food network structure, and (8) ecology and environment space database construction. As part of this effort, we collected diversity data on higher fungi in the Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica Fisch. ex Ledeb.) forest of Mt. Jeombong in 2016 (National Institute of Ecology, 2016).

2. Project description

Title: Soil microbial biodiversity and its environment

In 2016, we conducted a study on soil microbial biodiversity and its environment at the supersite of Mt. Jeombong. The aim of the research was to investigate the community of soil microorganisms in a forest ecosystem and to understand the interactions between microorganisms. However, unlike other microorganisms, higher fungi form fruiting bodies that can be observed directly with the naked eye. Therefore, we focused our investigation on higher fungi through the collection and analysis of diversity data.

3. Methods

Our research was conducted within the permanent quadrat measuring 100 × 100 m (1 ㏊) and in a 10 m radius of the ecological flux tower on Mt. Jeombong. We checked the host plants and surrounding environment and observed characteristics, like the color and shape of the fruiting bodies. The identification of higher fungi was performed by combining macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, such as the cap, stem, and spores. In addition, the “Wild Fungi of Korea” (Park and Lee, 2010) and “Nihon no kinoko” (Imazeki, 2011) were referenced for the identification and classification of higher fungi. These data were produced in accordance with the data standards and quality control procedures of the EcoBank ecological database of the National Institute of Ecology.

4. Temporal coverage

The biodiversity data on higher fungi in this study were produced during the 2 nd LTER from July to October 2016.

5. Spatial coverage

This research was conducted within the permanent 1 ha quadrat defined by the following geographic coordinates: upper left: N 38° 02′18.90″ E 128° 28′00.96″, upper right: N 38° 02′18.65″ E 128° 28′04.46″, lower left: N 38° 02′16.25″ E 128° 28′00.89″, and lower right: N 38° 02′15.65″ E 128° 28′04.99″ and in a 10 m radius of the ecological flux tower (center: N 38° 02′16.87″ E 128° 28′05.94″) on Mt. Jeombong in Inje-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea (Fig. 1).

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Figure 1

Map of the research site at Mt. Jeombong in Gangwon-do (shown as a red circle in the inset). Biodiversity of higher fungi conducted within (A) the permanent 1 ha quadrat (100 × 100 m) indicated by black lines and (B) in a 10 m radius (red dotted circle) of the ecological flux tower.


6. Results

A total of 31 families, 52 genera, and 120 species were identified (Table 1). Among them, mycorrhizal mushrooms were found in 13 families, 23 genera, and 76 species. There were 2 genera and 22 species in Russulaceae, 6 genera and 17 species in Boletaceae, 1 genus and 10 species in Amanitaceae, 3 genera and 6 species in Tricholomataceae, and 3 genera and 5 species in Agaricaceae. One genus and three species were identified in Bankeraceae, Gomphaceae, and Thelephoraceae, whereas one genus and two species were found in Cortinariceae and Entolomataceae. One genus and one species were identified in Cantharellaceae, Gomphidiaceae, and Suillaceae. Saprophytic mushrooms were found in 18 families, 29 genera, and 44 species. There were 5 genera and 10 species in Marasmiaceae, 2 genera and 8 species in Mycenaceae, 3 genera and 6 species in Polyporaceae, and 2 genera and 3 species in Strophariaceae. Two genera and two species were identified in Physalacriaceae, Stereumceae, and Xylariaceae. Futher, one genus and one species were identified in Clavariaceae, Corticiaceae, Helotiaceae, Meruliaceae, Nidulariaceae, Pezizaceae, Pluteaceae, Psathyrellaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Scutigeraceae, and Tubiferaceae (Fig. 2). The results of this research were published as part of the 2nd LTER Report (National Institue of Ecology, 2016).

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Table 1

List of higher fungal species collected from the Mongolian oak forest of Mt. Jeombong.

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Figure 2

Taxonomical structure of families of higher fungi of Mt. Jeombong, Korea. Russulaceae (22 species, 18.0%), Boletaceae (17 species, 13.9%), and Amanitaceae (10 species, 8.2%) are the top 3 taxa with the most species found in mycorrhizal mushrooms. Marasmiaceae (10 species, 9.8%), Mycenaceae (8 species, 6.6%), and Polyporaceae (6 species, 4.9%) are also the top 3 taxa with the most species found in saprophytic mushrooms.


7. Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Ecology (NIE), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIE-B-2016-02).

8. Usage rights

Use license: Other

IP rights notes: Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0

9. Data resources

Number of dataset: 1

Data set name: higherfungi1.zip

Data format: *.shp, *.xlsx

*.shp files: Map of research site of higher fungi of Mt. Jeombong

Higherfungi.xlsx: Raw data of higher fungi of Mt. Jeombong.


10. References

Imazeki R (2011) Nihon no kinoko. Yamatokeikokusha, Tokyo

National Institute of Biological Resources (2019) National Species List of Korea Ⅰ Plants, Fungi, Algae, Prokaryotes. National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon

National Institute of Ecology (2016) Project of Long Term Ecological Research. National Institute of Ecology, Seocheon

Park WH, Lee HD (2010) Wild Fungi of Korea. Kyo-Hak Publishing, Seoul